Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin (FSV), and should be taken with a meal that contains a small amount of dietary fat, because it attaches to the fat molecules, which transport it through the body.
Research shows that vitamin D is better absorbed when taken with the evening meal, which tends to be the largest and fattiest meal of the day. This same study also concluded that serum levels of vitamin D (25(OH)D) were increased by as much as 50% when supplemented in this fashion.[i]
The absorption of vitamin D can be inhibited by other FSV, because they use the same metabolic pathways and compete for the same fat molecules[ii]; so it is best to separate dosages by several hours.
[i] Mulligan GB, Licata A. Taking vitamin D with the largest meal improves absorption and results in higher serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. J Bone Miner Res. 2010 Apr;25(4):928-30. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.67.
[ii] Goncalves A, Roi S, Nowicki M, Dhaussy A, Huertas A, Amiot MJ, Reboul E. Fat-soluble vitamin intestinal absorption: absorption sites in the intestine and interactions for absorption. Food Chem. 2015 Apr 1;172:155-60. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.09.021. Epub 2014 Sep 16.
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